📜Claim covenants

To reduce the interactivity requirements of Reverse Swaps, one can make use of covenants. For instance this allows a mobile wallet provider to claim Reverse Swaps for its users while they are offline.

Covenants are available on Liquid in the form of direction introspection. These opcodes allow the script in the witness to inspect the inputs, outputs and other properties of the transaction it is executed in.

Boltz API

Boltz API clients can ask for a covenant to be included in the Taptree of a Reverse Swap. With that new leaf in the tree, the coins locked for the Reverse Swap can be claimed by revealing the preimage and sending the expected asset with expected amount to an address of the client in the 0th output of the transaction. This is what the script looks like:

<RIPEMD-160 hash of the SHA-256 hash of the preimage>

<version of the output script of the address of the client>
<output script of the output script of the address of the client>

<asset hash of Liquid Bitcoin>

<amount the user is expecting to receive>

Use Cases & Advantages

No signature is needed to sweep the locked funds to the address of the client, which removes the requirement for clients like mobile wallets to be online to sign a claim transaction. Instead, this allows a third party (e.g. the wallet service provider) to claim the Reverse Swap, as the Swap can only be claimed to the user's address. Lightning HTLCs of the Reverse Swap are always resolved in a timely manner, which is the expected behavior for the routing nodes on the route of the Lightning payment and reduces capital requirements in comparison to solutions like Zaplocker.

Trust assumptions

When handing over the preimage of a Reverse Swap to a third party like a mobile wallet provider, you have to rely on this party not to collude with the Lightning node that accepts HTLCs for the hold invoice. If that happens, the covenant script path spend would not be executed, but the Lightning HTLCs resolved and eventually, the coins locked on Liquid will be refunded.

To avoid this from happening, the client should have access to multiple servers that enforce covenant claims for them.

Example code

This example registers a covenant to be claimed with the reference implementation covclaim running locally at port 1234:

import axios from 'axios';
import { crypto } from 'bitcoinjs-lib';
import { SwapTreeSerializer, Types } from 'boltz-core';
import { randomBytes } from 'crypto';
import { ECPairFactory } from 'ecpair';
import * as ecc from 'tiny-secp256k1';

const ECPair = ECPairFactory(ecc);

type CovenantParams = {
  claimPublicKey: Buffer;
  refundPublicKey: Buffer;
  preimage: Buffer;
  blindingKey: Buffer;
  address: string;
  tree: Types.SwapTree;

const endpoint = 'https://api.testnet.boltz.exchange';
const covenantEndpoint = '';

const createSwap = async (): Promise<CovenantParams> => {
  const preimage = randomBytes(32);
  const claimKeys = ECPair.makeRandom();

  const address =

  const swapRes = (
    await axios.post(`${endpoint}/v2/swap/reverse`, {
      from: 'BTC',
      to: 'L-BTC',
      claimCovenant: true,
      invoiceAmount: 10_000,
      preimageHash: crypto.sha256(preimage).toString('hex'),
      claimPublicKey: claimKeys.publicKey.toString('hex'),

  // Verification checks skipped

  return {
    claimPublicKey: claimKeys.publicKey,
    blindingKey: Buffer.from(swapRes.blindingKey, 'hex'),
    refundPublicKey: Buffer.from(swapRes.refundPublicKey, 'hex'),
    tree: SwapTreeSerializer.deserializeSwapTree(swapRes.swapTree),

const registerCovenant = async (params: CovenantParams) =>
  await axios.post(`${covenantEndpoint}/covenant`, {
    address: params.address,
    preimage: params.preimage.toString('hex'),
    tree: SwapTreeSerializer.serializeSwapTree(params.tree),
    blindingKey: params.blindingKey.toString('hex'),
    claimPublicKey: params.claimPublicKey.toString('hex'),
    refundPublicKey: params.refundPublicKey.toString('hex'),

(async () => {
  try {
    const swap = await createSwap();
    await registerCovenant(swap);
  } catch (e) {

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